Who are the key figures (founder or founders) associated with the approach?

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Theories at-a-Glance The tables in this book compare theories over a range of topics, thereby providing you with the ability to easily compare, contrast, and grasp the practical aspects of each theory. These tables also serve as invaluable resources that can be used to review the key concepts, philoso- phies, limitations, contributions to multicultural counseling, applications, techniques, and goals of all theories in this text.

The following chart provides a convenient guide to the tables in this text.

Pages

6–7 Table 1.1 Overview of Contemporary Counseling Models

62–63 Table 4.1 Ego-Defense Mechanisms

65–66 Table 4.2 Comparison of Freud’s Psychosexual Stages and Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

432 Table 15.1 The Basic Philosophies

433–434 Table 15.2 Key Concepts

438 Table 15.3 Goals of Therapy

441–442 Table 15.4 The Therapeutic Relationship

443–444 Table 15.5 Techniques of Therapy

444–445 Table 15.6 Applications of the Approaches

446 Table 15.7 Contributions to Multicultural Counseling

447 Table 15.8 Limitations in Multicultural Counseling

448–449 Table 15.9 Contributions of the Approaches

449–450 Table 15.10 Limitations of the Approaches

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Overview of Focus Questions for the Theories For the chapters dealing with the different theories, you will have a basic understand- ing of this book if you can answer the following questions as they apply to each of the eleven theories:

Who are the key figures (founder or founders) associated with the approach?

What are some of the basic assumptions underlying this approach?

What are a few of the key concepts that are essential to this theory?

What do you consider to be the most important goals of this therapy?

What is the role the therapeutic relationship plays in terms of therapy outcomes?

What are a few of the techniques from this therapy model that you would want to incorporate into your counseling practice?

What are some of the ways that this theory is applied to client populations, settings, and treat- ment of problems?

What do you see as the major strength of this theory from a diversity perspective?

What do you see as the major shortcoming of this theory from a diversity perspective?

What do you consider to be the most significant contribution of this approach?

What do you consider to be the most significant limitation of this approach?

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Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

Gerald Corey California State University, Fullerton Diplomate in Counseling Psychology,

American Board of Professional Psychology

Theory and PracTice of counseling and

PsychoTheraPy Tenth Edition

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Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2015

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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, Tenth Edition Gerald Corey

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To the founders and key figures of the theories presented

in this book—with appreciation for their contributions

to contemporary counseling practice.

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iv

abouT The auThor

gerald corey is Professor Emeritus of Human Services and Counseling at California State University at Fullerton. He received his doctorate in counseling from the University of Southern California. He is a Diplomate in Counseling Psy- chology, American Board of Professional Psychology; a licensed psychologist; and a National Certified Counselor. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Associa- tion (Division 17, Counseling Psychology; and Division 49, Group Psychotherapy); a Fellow of the American Counseling Association; and a Fellow of the Association for Specialists in Group Work. He also holds memberships in the American Group Psychotherapy Association; the American Mental Health Counselors Association; the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling; the Asso- ciation for Counselor Education and Supervision; and the Western Association of Counselor Education and Supervision. Both Jerry and Marianne Corey received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Mental Health Counselors Associ- ation in 2011, and both of them received the Eminent Career Award from ASGW in 2001. Jerry was given the Outstanding Professor of the Year Award from California State University at Fullerton in 1991. He regularly teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in group counseling and ethics in counseling. He is the author or coauthor of 15 textbooks in counseling currently in print, along with more than 60 journal articles and book chapters. Several of his books have been translated into other languages. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy has been trans- lated into Arabic, Indonesian, Portuguese, Turkish, Korean, and Chinese. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling has been translated into Korean, Chinese, Spanish, and Russian. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions has been translated into Korean, Japanese, and Chinese.

In the past 40 years Jerry and Marianne Corey have conducted group counsel- ing training workshops for mental health professionals at many universities in the United States as well as in Canada, Mexico, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Germany, Belgium, Scotland, England, and Ireland. In his leisure time, Jerry likes to travel, hike and bicycle in the mountains, and drive his 1931 Model A Ford. Marianne and Jerry have been married since 1964. They have two adult daughters, Heidi and Cindy, two granddaughters (Kyla and Keegan), and one grandson (Corey).

Recent publications by Jerry Corey, all with Cengage Learning, include:

ŠŠ Theory and Practice of Group Counseling, Ninth Edition (and Student Manual) (2016)

ŠŠ Becoming a Helper, Seventh Edition (2016, with Marianne Schneider Corey)

ŠŠ Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, Ninth Edition (2015, with Mari- anne Schneider Corey, Cindy Corey, and Patrick Callanan)

ŠŠ Group Techniques, Fourth Edition (2015, with Marianne Schneider Corey, Patrick Callanan, and J. Michael Russell)

ŠŠ Groups: Process and Practice, Ninth Edition (2014, with Marianne Schnei- der Corey and Cindy Corey)

iv

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v

ŠŠ I Never Knew I Had a Choice, Tenth Edition (2014, with Marianne Schneider Corey)

ŠŠ Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy, Eighth Edition (2013) ŠŠ The Art of Integrative Counseling, Third Edition (2013)

Jerry Corey is coauthor (with Barbara Herlihy) of Boundary Issues in Counseling: Multiple Roles and Responsibilities, Third Edition (2015) and ACA Ethical Standards Case- book, Seventh Edition (2015); he is coauthor (with Robert Haynes, Patrice Moulton, and Michelle Muratori) of Clinical Supervision in the Helping Professions: A Practical Guide, Second Edition (2010); he is the author of Creating Your Professional Path: Les- sons From My Journey (2010). All four of these books are published by the American Counseling Association.

He has also made several educational DVD programs on various aspects of counseling practice: (1) Ethics in Action: DVD and Workbook (2015, with Marianne Schneider Corey and Robert Haynes); (2) Groups in Action: Evolution and Challenges DVD and Workbook (2014, with Marianne Schneider Corey and Robert Haynes); (3) DVD for Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy: The Case of Stan and Lecturettes (2013); (4) DVD for Integrative Counseling: The Case of Ruth and Lecturettes (2013, with Robert Haynes); and (5) DVD for Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (2012). All of these programs are available through Cengage Learning.

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Preface xi

PART 1

BASIC ISSUES IN COUNSELING PRACTICE

1 Introduction and Overview 1 introduction 2 Where I Stand 3 Suggestions for Using the Book 5 Overview of the Theory Chapters 6 Introduction to the Case of Stan 9 Introduction to the Case of Gwen 13

2 The Counselor: Person and Professional 17

introduction 18 The Counselor as a Therapeutic Person 18 Personal Therapy for the Counselor 20 The Counselor’s Values and the Therapeutic Process 22 Becoming an Effective Multicultural Counselor 25 Issues Faced by Beginning Therapists 28 Summary 35

3 Ethical Issues in Counseling Practice 37

introduction 38 Putting Clients’ Needs Before Your Own 38 Ethical Decision Making 39 The Right of Informed Consent 41 Dimensions of Confidentiality 42 Ethical Issues From a Multicultural Perspective 43 Ethical Issues in the Assessment Process 45 Ethical Aspects of Evidence-Based Practice 48 Managing Multiple Relationships in Counseling Practice 49 Becoming an Ethical Counselor 52 Summary 53

Where to Go From Here 53 Recommended Supplementary Readings for Part 1 54

PART 2

THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING

4 Psychoanalytic Therapy 57 introduction 58 Key Concepts 59 The Therapeutic Process 66 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 72 Jung’s Perspective on the Development of Personality 77 Contemporary Trends: Object-Relations Theory, Self Psychology, and Relational Psychoanalysis 79 Psychoanalytic Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 84 Psychoanalytic Therapy applied to the case of stan 85 Psychoanalytic Therapy applied to the case of gwen 87 Summary and Evaluation 89 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 92 Where to Go From Here 92 Recommended Supplementary Readings 93

5 Adlerian Therapy 95 introduction 98 Key Concepts 98 The Therapeutic Process 104 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 108 Adlerian Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 119 adlerian Therapy applied to the case of stan 121 adlerian Therapy applied to the case of gwen 122

Contents

vii

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viii Contents

Summary and Evaluation 124 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 126 Where to Go From Here 127 Recommended Supplementary Readings 128

6 Existential Therapy 129 introduction 132 Key Concepts 137 The Therapeutic Process 146 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 149 Existential Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 153 existential Therapy applied to the case of stan 155 existential Therapy applied to the case of gwen 156 Summary and Evaluation 157 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 160 Where to Go From Here 160 Recommended Supplementary Readings 162

7 Person-Centered Therapy 163 introduction 165 Key Concepts 170 The Therapeutic Process 171 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 176 Person-Centered Expressive Arts Therapy 180 Motivational Interviewing 182 Person-Centered Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 184 Person-centered Therapy applied to the case of stan 186 Person-centered Therapy applied to the case of gwen 187 Summary and Evaluation 190 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 193 Where to Go From Here 193 Recommended Supplementary Readings 195

8 Gestalt Therapy 197 introduction 199 Key Concepts 200 The Therapeutic Process 206

Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 211 Gestalt Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 220 gestalt Therapy applied to the case of stan 221 gestalt Therapy applied to the case of gwen 223 Summary and Evaluation 224 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 227 Where to Go From Here 227 Recommended Supplementary Readings 229

9 Behavior Therapy 231 introduction 233 Key Concepts 236 The Therapeutic Process 238 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 240 Behavior Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 258 behavior Therapy applied to the case of stan 259 behavior Therapy applied to the case of gwen 260 Summary and Evaluation 262 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 265 Where to Go From Here 266 Recommended Supplementary Readings 267

10 Cognitive Behavior Therapy 269 introduction 270 Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy 270 Key Concepts 272 The Therapeutic Process 273 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 275 Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 281 Christine Padesky and Kathleen Mooney’s Strengths-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 289 Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behavior Modification 293 Cognitive Behavior Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 298 cognitive behavior Therapy applied to the case of stan 300 cognitive behavior Therapy applied to the case of gwen 302 Summary and Evaluation 303

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Contents ix

Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 307 Where to Go From Here 308 Recommended Supplementary Readings 310

11 Choice Theory/Reality Therapy 311

introduction 313 Key Concepts 314 The Therapeutic Process 318 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 320 Choice Theory/Reality Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 327 reality Therapy applied to the case of stan 329 reality Therapy applied to the case of gwen 331 Summary and Evaluation 332 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 334 Where to Go From Here 334 Recommended Supplementary Readings 336

12 Feminist Therapy 337 introduction 339 Key Concepts 341 The Therapeutic Process 345 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 348 Feminist Therapy From a Multicultural and Social Justice Perspective 354 feminist Therapy applied to the case of stan 355 feminist Therapy applied to the case of gwen 357 Summary and Evaluation 360 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 364 Where to Go From Here 364 Recommended Supplementary Readings 366

13 Postmodern Approaches 367 Some Contemporary Founders of Postmodern Therapies 368 Introduction to Social Constructionism 368 Solution-Focused Brief Therapy 371 Narrative Therapy 382 Postmodern Approaches From a Multicultural Perspective 390 Postmodern approaches applied to the case of stan 392

Postmodern approaches applied to the case of gwen 394 Summary and Evaluation 396 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 398 Where to Go From Here 399 Recommended Supplementary Readings 400

14 Family Systems Therapy 403 introduction 404 Development of Family Systems Therapy 406 A Multilayered Process of Family Therapy 409 Family Systems Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 415 family Therapy applied to the case of stan 417 family Therapy applied to the case of gwen 420 Summary and Evaluation 422 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 424 Where to Go From Here 424 Recommended Supplementary Readings 425

PART 3

INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION

15 An Integrative Perspective 427 introduction 428 The Movement Toward Psychotherapy Integration 428 Issues Related to the Therapeutic Process 437 The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in Counseling 443 an integrative approach applied to the case of stan 452 an integrative approach applied to the case of gwen 455 Summary 456 Concluding Comments 457 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 458 Where to Go From Here 458 Recommended Supplementary Readings 459

references and suggested readings 461

name index 481

subject index 485

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