What is the correct sequence of steps during infection of plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
42. As fuels wood and coal ________.
A) are the main fuel sources in industrialized countries today.
B) are both formed from living or fossil plants.
C) are both formed under pressure deep in the Earth.
D) are sustainable as they are even now being made at high rates.
43. Molecular phylogenies show all land plants are a monophyletic group. This suggests ________.
A) there were many different transitions from aquatic to terrestrial habitats
B) wind-pollinated plants arose first
C) land plants have undergone a diversification since they first colonized terrestrial habitats
D) there was a single transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats
44. Which of these time intervals based on plant fossils came last (most recently)?
A) extensive growth of gymnosperm forests
B) Silurian-Devonian explosion with fossils of plant lineages containing most of the major morphological innovations
C) colonization of land by early liverworts and mosses
D) rise and diversification of angiosperms
E) carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and lycophytes
45. Why are seedless vascular plants considered paraphyletic rather than monophyletic?
A) Some of the groups within the seedless vascular plants are more closely related to each other than to other groups (such as Lycophyta).
B) They share a more recent common ancestor with seeded plants than they do with the non-vascular plants.
C) All of the groups contained within the seedless vascular plants do not have the same ancestor.
D) The group includes their common ancestor but also the seeded descendants of that same ancestor.
46. Which set contains the most closely related terms?
A) megasporangium megaspore pollen ovule
B) microsporangium microspore egg ovary
C) megasporangium megaspore egg ovule
D) microsporangium microspore carpel ovary
47. In the process of alternation of generations the ________.
A) sporophyte is haploid and produces gametes
B) sporophyte is diploid and produces spores
C) gametophyte is haploid and produces spores
D) gametophyte is diploid and produces gametes
E) spores unite to form a zygote
48. Where are you LEAST likely to see green algae?
A) as pink snow in the mountains in summer
B) growing symbiotically with fungi in lichens or with some invertebrate animals
C) growing independently on dry rock in meadows
D) growing independently on wet rock in ponds and lakes
E) floating in seas and oceans
49. When a mosquito infected with Plasmodium first bites a human the Plasmodium ________.
A) gametes fuse forming an oocyst
B) cells infect the human liver cells
C) cells cause lysing of the human red blood cells
D) oocyst undergoes meiosis
50. Carbon dioxide enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the ________.
B) epidermal trichomes
E) walls of guard cells
51. Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) root cap
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots
E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem
52. When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution and water enters the cell via osmosis the volume of the cell increases until it bursts. This does NOT happen to plant cells because ________.
A) they have large central vacuoles which provide abundant space for storage of incoming water
B) the composition of their plasma membranes differs from that of animal-cell plasma membranes in a way that provides much greater strength
C) they have cell walls which prevent the entry of water by osmosis
D) they have cell walls which provide pressure to counteract the pressure of the incoming water
E) certain gated channel proteins embedded in their plasma membranes open as osmotic pressure decreases allowing excess water to leave the cell
53. Compared to a cell with few aquaporins in its membrane a cell containing many aquaporins will ________.
A) have a faster rate of osmosis
B) have a lower water potential
C) have a higher water potential
D) have a faster rate of active transport
E) be flaccid
54. Which cells in a root form a protective barrier to the vascular system where all materials must move through the symplast?
55. You are conducting an experiment on plant growth. You take a plant fresh from the soil that weighs 5 kilograms (kg). Then you dry the plant overnight and determine the dry weight to be 1 kg. Of this dry weight how much would you expect to be made up of oxygen carbon and hydrogen?
A) 1 gram
B) 4 grams
C) 40 grams
D) 960 grams
E) 1 kg
56. Which of the following statements about essential nutrients are TRUE? Essential nutrients ________.
I. are necessary for plant growth and reproduction
II. are required for a specific structure or metabolic function
III. cannot be synthesized by a plant
IV. are produced by symbiotic bacteria
A) I and IV
B) II III and IV
C) I II and III
D) I II III and IV
57. Which criteria allow biologists to divide chemicals into macronutrients and micronutrients?
A) molecular weight of the element or compound
B) the quantities of each required by plants
C) how they are used in metabolism
D) whether or not they are essential for plant growth
58. A mineral deficiency is likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if the ________.
A) mineral is a micronutrient
B) mineral is very mobile within the plant
C) mineral is required for chlorophyll synthesis
D) mineral is a macronutrient
E) older leaves are in direct sunlight
59.Which of the following elements correctly pairs an essential element in plants with its function?
A) nitrogencomponent of nucleic acids proteins hormones coenzymes
B) magnesiumcomponent of nucleic acids phospholipids ATP
C) phosphoruscofactor functioning in protein synthesis
D) sulfurcomponent of DNA; activates some enzymes
60.Why is nitrogen fixation an essential process?
A) Fixed nitrogen is often the limiting factor in plant growth.
B) Nitrogen fixation is very expensive in terms of metabolic energy.
C) Nitrogen-fixing capacity can be genetically engineered.
D) None of the above
61.Nitrogen fixation is a process that ________.
A) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials
B) converts ammonia to ammonium
C) releases nitrate from the rock substrate
D) converts nitrogen gas into ammonia
E) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials and converts ammonia to ammonium
62.Which of the following if used as a fertilizer would be most immediately available for plant uptake?
63. In what way do nitrogen compounds differ from other minerals needed by plants? Only nitrogen ________.
A) can be lost from the soil
B) can be provided by symbiotic bacteria
C) is needed for protein synthesis
D) is held by cation exchange capacity in the soil
E) can be absorbed by root hairs
64. What is the correct sequence of steps during infection of plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
A) Rhizobia release Nod factors; roots release flavonoids; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.
B) Rhizobia release flavonoids; roots release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.
C) Roots release flavonoids; rhizobia release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; nodule forms; infection thread grows into the root cortex.
D) Roots release flavonoids; rhizobia release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.
E) Nodule forms; infection thread grows into the root cortex; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; rhizobia release flavonoids and Nod factors.
65. Carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant’s supply of ________.
C) lipids and steroids
D) nitrogen nutrient and other minerals
66. Which of the following statements about nitrogen fixation in root nodules is correct?
A) The plant contributes the nitrogenase enzyme.
B) The process is relatively inexpensive in terms of ATP costs.
C) Leghemoglobin helps maintain a low oxygen concentration within the nodule.
D) The process tends to deplete nitrogen compounds in the soil.
E) The bacteria of the nodule are autotrophic.
67. Most of the dry mass of a plant is derived from ________.
A) NO3-and CO2
B) K+and CO2
C) PO4and K+
D) H2O and K+
E) H2O and CO2
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