Match the p-values with the appropriate conclusion:

(a) The evidence against the null hypothesis is significant, but only at the 10% level.

(b) The evidence against the null and in favor of the alternative is very strong.

(c) There is not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis, even at the 10% level.

(d) The result is significant at a 5% level but not at a 1% level.

Chapter 4, Section 3, Exercise 082

Sleep or Caffeine for Memory?

The consumption of caffeine to benefit alertness is a common activity practiced by 90% of adults in North America. Often caffeine is used in order to replace the need for sleep. One recent study^{1} compares students’ ability to recall memorized information after either the consumption of caffeine or a brief sleep. A random sample of 35 adults (between the ages of 18-39 ) were randomly divided into three groups and verbally given a list of 24 words to memorize. During a break, one of the groups takes a nap for an hour and a half, another group is kept awake and then given a caffeine pill an hour prior to testing, and the third group is given a placebo. The response variable of interest is the number of words participants are able to recall following the break. The summary statistics for the three groups are in the table below. We are interested in testing whether there is evidence of a difference in average recall ability between any two of the treatments. Thus we have three possible tests between different pairs of groups: Sleep vs Caffeine, Sleep vs Placebo, and Caffeine vs Placebo.

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