Write a 48 page essay on Effects of health education intervention on patients knowledge, attitude and health behaviour in asthma.
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However, findings are unlikely to be generalizable to patients with asthma in whom a complex interplay of factors complicate management and who are therefore often excluded from or fail to attend standard research.
Asthma is the most common medical chronic disease in western society. Despite advances morbidity rates are increasing. According to a study from Harty et al (2003), in 1996 a threefold increase in prevalence over a decade was demonstrated in Irish schoolchildren aged four to nineteen years of age that reflect the early childhood years when asthma tends to be more prevalent and hospital add mission rate tend to be higher. Otherwise, deaths due to asthma are uncommon and most of the deaths occurred in people over 65 years. In the 5 to 34 year age group, there was a rise in the death rate in the early to mid 1980s, peaking in 1986, and then decreasing (Glasgow et al, 2003).
However, Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways (Bell et al, 2000). The result is difficulty breathing. The bronchial narrowing is usually either totally or at least partially reversible with treatments. Bronchial tubes that are chronically inflamed may become overly sensitive to allergens (specific triggers) or irritants (non-specific triggers). The airways may become twitchy and remain in a state of heightened sensitivity. It is likely that there is a spectrum of bronchial hyperreactivity in all individuals. However, it is clear that asthmatic patients and allergic individuals (without apparent asthma) have a greater degree of bronchial hyper reactivity than non-asthmatic and non-allergic people. In sensitive individuals, the bronchial tubes are more likely to swell and constrict when exposed to triggers such as allergens, tobacco smoke, or exercise (Butz et al, 2006).
Moreover, the frequency and severity of asthma is a serious health issue over the entire world, crossing all national, cultural, social, and economic boundaries (Johnson, 2003). Health education interventions should be a major component of treatment, as they have the ability to make significant impacts both in terms of public and practitioner policy as well as personal suffering (Cote et al, 2006). The symptomatic and lifestyle effect of asthma upon the patients can be debilitating. Accordingly, when assessing, planning and evaluating the care of the asthma patient, nurses and healthcare providers must be especially aware of the conditions, quality of life issues, and therapies associated with the disease. Further, because asthma involves significant patient self-help behaviour associated with most chronic diseases, education is vital. Accordingly, the issue of both practitioner and patient awareness is particularly significant: A health education initiative will have a positive impact upon these individuals.
The fact that the onset of physiological responses can happen very quickly and, in severe cases, cause asphyxiation, means patient assessment should be based upon symptomatic presentation and observable behaviours.