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Shoulder pain is common in people who have had chronic spinal cord injuries. Using the upper extremities as weight-bearing limbs for prolonged amounts of time can be stressful to the muscles of those extremities, resulting in severe pain that could limit the capabilities of the patient to perform even everyday tasks. This article determines the effectiveness of this exercise program in optimizing the performance of upper-extremity tasks on shoulder pain in paraplegics from spinal cord injuries. Previous research done by Lundquist and colleagues, and Gutierrez et al. have both come to the conclusion that shoulder pain is a definitive factor in the lower quality of life scores in patients with spinal cord injuries. This prompts researchers to look for ways to mend this problem. Previous studies have shown that strengthening workout tailor fit to suit the needs of paraplegics can help reduce pain as effectively as surgery, without the tremendous cost. This trial is the first to record the efficacy of the STOMP exercise program, putting it as an important source of information on the matter. Even though this study succeeded, it needs more studies to see if the same treatment can also help patients with tetraplagia. The author’s purpose for this study was “to determine the effect of an exercise program and instruction to optimize performance of upper-extremity tasks on shoulder pain in people with paraplegia from spinal cord injury” (Mulroy et al., 2011, p. 305). There were also secondary purposes for this trial wherein they wanted to “determine the impact of the intervention on physical activity and participation, including health-related and overall self-reported quality of living,” and “to identify whether improvements in pain or function would be maintained for 4 weeks after the end of the intervention” (Mulroy et al., 2011, p. 307). Methods Participants and Procedure The participants for this trial were volunteers who responded to flyers posted at outpatient clinics at Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center. The inclusion criteria included: (1) post pubescent onset of paraplegia at age 14 years or older, (2) had a Spinal Cord Injury of at least 5 years’ duration, (3) were between 19 and 75 years of age, (4) had unilateral or bilateral shoulder pain that interfered with at least one functional task, (5) used a manual wheelchair for mobility at least 50% of the time, and (6) had the ability to understand informed consent (Mulroy et al., 2011, p. 307). Some of the participants were also excluded from the study because of the following criteria: (1) hospitalization within the previous month. (2) cortisone injection to the shoulder within the previous 4 months. (3) fracture within the previous year. (4) shoulder surgery to the painful side within the previous year. (5) diagnosis of complete rotator cuff tear, rheumatoid arthritis, adhesive capsulitis at the shoulder, or complex regional pain syndrome. (6) positive ?ndings on all 3 clinical tests for full-thickness rotator cuff tear. (7) any serious medical conditions. (8) major depression. or (9) alcohol abuse (Mulroy et al.

 
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