Complete 8 page APA formatted essay: International Issues in Management and Employment Relations.

It is recognized that Human Resource Management (HRM) problems are more complex in the international environment.

A cultural difference in the home country to the country of assignment is quite learning for expatriate before he/she makes the decision to take on the project (Covin 1999). There is emphasis on cultural awareness training as part of the pre-departure training.

This training is required where there’s a huge difference in the culture. Cultural issue takes the basis of any discussion that centers on the premise of providing oneness and unity within the human resources management undertakings and these have profound effects on the overall results that have already been envisaged by the human resource specialists beforehand.

1. Power Distance means the less powerful members of organizations accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. In high power distance countries, such as India, Mexico and South Korea, employees always accept and obey superior therefore the organization structure is centralized and tall. On the other hand, the structure of low power distance countries, for instance Finland, Ireland and Austria, is flat and decentralized.

2. Individualism refers to every person is expected to look after himself or herself and immediate family only. The high individualism countries, for example Canada, Sweden and the United State, usually are wealthy and more relevant to Protestant work ethic. In addition, there is more individual initiative and promotions depend on market value (Lazer 1971). On the collectivist side, people in communities are integrated and cohesive in groups and extended families, consisting of grandparents, aunts and uncles, always look after each other. The high collectivism countries, such as Pakistan and Indonesia, generally are poorer countries and concern Protestant work ethic less than high individualism countries (Hatch & Cunliff 2005). Furthermore,

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