Write a 10 page essay on Infrastructure Application and Review.

Nevertheless, scientists and engineers continuously laboured to keep abreast of modern trends in highway administration and maintenance.

As early as 1989, the maiden version of a digital road map database for land navigation has been completed. The database contains precise information on the road attributes all over Japan and may be used to strengthen highway management initiatives (Kamijo,

Okumura and Kitamura, 1989, p. 319).

It was, however, in 2003 when Japan introduced a road management mechanism in order to promote efficacy and transparency in road administration. The scheme is anchored on a system of measurements based on indices. Salient features of the road management system are performance plans, achievement reports and the Guidance for Road Administration Management (GRAM). A performance plan which delineates numerical targets, policies and projects are published yearly. while an achievement report which contains an assessment of the level of achievement of the numerical targets are also published at the end of each fiscal year.

Meanwhile, to maximize the gains of the road administration management system as it is implemented in the countryside, the GRAM is prepared and disseminated. Figure 1 shows the typical flow of road administration management in Japan as practised by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Road Bureau, 2008a).

Over the years, the Japanese government and the concerned institutions struggled to encourage systematic management founded on existing circumstances and forecasts. Preventive maintenance is commonly implemented to extend the functionality of infrastructure like bridge systems. This approach is known to mitigate costs related to repair and rebuilding.

To be able to capitalise on the benefits of preventive maintenance, Japanese road administrators also practiced competent defect identification and

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