Create a 1 page essay paper that discusses Epidemiology: Risk Of Epidemiological Diseases And Cancer.
The first view holds true when considering the case like the one comparing smoking and lung cancer. In this case, the odds ratio and relative risk are in a ration of 20 to40 when consideration the comparison between smokers to non-smokers. . However, great caution is needed to avoid taking OR’s and RR’s linked to the weak association as an indication of non-causality. This idea holds true, especially, when dealing with conditions that present a common outcome in the area of interest. Cardiovascular disease (CV) serves as an example of a common outcome exhibiting weak association (Ibrahim, & Alexander (n.d.). In this case, the existing evidence supports the causal nature between smoking and development of CV disease despite the weak. The study of cancer epidemiology is the other proves as it largely depends on identification of small effects and weak associations. Here, Weak associations have been found handy in all aspects of epidemiology, of which genetics and diet are inclusive. Considering the case of diet and cancer, the outcome of early research, mostly the case-control design, indicated the presence of a relatively strong linkage between particular dietary and cancer risk (Gordis, 2008). However, the last decade analysis of future studies, which show minimal biases but may incorporate populations with partial exposure contrast, has largely indicated weak (or null) associations. In conclusion, it is not hard to establish the causal nature based on weak association.